The somewhat provocative title of this volume relates to the lingering fears of Islamization which are widespread also in Russia. Indeed, Islam has proved to be resilient and has become the main way of life in Russia´s Islamic regions (the North Caucasus, Tatarstan and Bashkortostan). The contributions to this volume were written by Russian researchers who are intimately familiar with Russia´s Islamic communities, their history and the complex relationship between Islam and politics. The book highlights the rich diversity of Russian Islam and explores the internal struggles and conflicts between radical movements and conservative Muslim authorities. An empirical study among Chechen refugees in Austria investigating the change of Islamic identities in a free society complements this insightful piece of scholarly work which – unsurprisingly-arrives at the conclusion that Russia will not turn Islamic any time soon.